Subscribe free to our newsletters via your
  Energy News  




Subscribe free to our newsletters via your




















BIO FUEL
Photosynthesis in the dark Unraveling the mystery of algae evolution
by Staff Writers
Tokyo, Japan (SPX) Apr 26, 2017


The evolution of photosynthetic organisms began approximately 2.5 billion years ago when cyanobacteria came into existence and first used water molecules for photosynthesis. Image courtesy Waseda University.

Scientists have long studied which of the three primary photosynthetic eukaryotes (red algae, green algae, and glaucophytes) has come into existence first to unravel the biological mystery of algae evolution by analyzing their genetic information.

Despite learning that the structure of cyanelles, an organelle unique to glaucophytes, is most similar to the ancestral cyanobacteria among other organelles, these studies have not conclusively resolved the branching position of glaucophytes and left the early branching history of the three primary photosynthetic lineages uncertain.

A recent study by Waseda University researchers indicated that the effect of respiration on photosynthesis in the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa is surprisingly similar to the interaction between respiration and photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. These results suggest that cyanelles retain many of the characteristics observed in their ancestral cyanobacteria.

"From the view point of metabolic interactions, C. paradoxa is the primary symbiotic algae most similar to cyanobacteria," says Kintake Sonoike, a professor of plant and cell physiology at Waseda University. "Our findings provide valuable information for revealing how photosynthetic organisms evolved."

This research is published in Scientific Reports.

The evolution of photosynthetic organisms began approximately 2.5 billion years ago when cyanobacteria came into existence and first used water molecules for photosynthesis, releasing oxygen as a by-product and changing life forms on earth.

After an endosymbiosis event involving a eukaryote and a cyanobacterium, red algae, green algae and glaucophytes diverged from its common ancestor, a eukaryotic photosynthetic organism.

In this long process, various metabolic interactions in cells have changed dramatically. For example, when cyanobacteria, which had performed both photosynthesis and respiration until then, evolved into chloroplast, mitochondria became responsible for respiration. Yet, there was a lack of information of these aspects in glaucophytes which needed to be addressed in order to understand the diversity of photosynthetic regulation and metabolic interaction among primary symbiotic algae.

In this study, Professor Sonoike measured chlorophyll fluorescence using a pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometer to analyze photosynthesis in C. paradoxa, without destroying the cells, and check its interactions with metabolic reactions such as respiration. The application of such technique to algae is not easy, but being an expert in measuring fluorescence in cyanobacteria, Professor Sonoike successfully adapted the method to this research.

Fluorescence emission of chlorophyll was measured by shining different kinds of light on glaucophyte cells. As a result, the levels of nonchemical quenching (NPQ), a mechanism of algae to protect themselves from intense light, was high in the dark but decreased under low light, and increased again under high light. This implies that photosynthesis of glaucophytes is affected and changed by other metabolic reactions, even in the dark.

"Such concave light dependence was quite similar that observed in cyanobacteria," points out Professor Sonoike. "Although glaucophytes perform photosynthesis and respiration separately with respective organelles unlike cyanobacteria, similar metabolic interactions are observed in both organisms."

These results formulate a new theory on the effects of respiration and other metabolic reactions on photosynthesis. Such metabolic reactions are believed to slow down photosynthetic efficiency, but glaucophytes seem to use a different metabolic pathway to make up for the loss.

In recent years, it was found that though plants without DNA regulation on photosynthesis can survive under certain light conditions, such plants can be easily destroyed in nature, where the amount of light depends on the environment.

Taking this into consideration, a hypothesis arises that regulating photosynthesis in dark places under weak light through metabolic interactions in advance may be necessary for effective photosynthesis in nature. Professor Sonoike plans to further investigate whether respiration, an opposing reaction to photosynthesis, could actually be helping the efficiency of photosynthesis.

Research paper: Characterization of the influence of chlororespiration on the regulation of photosynthesis in the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa

BIO FUEL
The Very Hungry Caterpillar joins fight against plastic pollution
Paris (AFP) April 24, 2017
A moth caterpillar commonly bred to provide fish bait feasts on a notoriously resistant plastic, scientists reported Monday, raising hopes the creature can help manage the global problem of plastic-bag pollution. "This discovery could be an important tool for helping to get rid of the polyethylene plastic waste accumulated in landfill sites and oceans," said Cambridge University professor P ... read more

Related Links
Waseda University
Bio Fuel Technology and Application News

Thanks for being here;
We need your help. The SpaceDaily news network continues to grow but revenues have never been harder to maintain.

With the rise of Ad Blockers, and Facebook - our traditional revenue sources via quality network advertising continues to decline. And unlike so many other news sites, we don't have a paywall - with those annoying usernames and passwords.

Our news coverage takes time and effort to publish 365 days a year.

If you find our news sites informative and useful then please consider becoming a regular supporter or for now make a one off contribution.

SpaceDaily Contributor
$5 Billed Once


credit card or paypal
SpaceDaily Monthly Supporter
$5 Billed Monthly


paypal only

Comment using your Disqus, Facebook, Google or Twitter login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle

BIO FUEL
Solar cell design with over 50 percent energy-conversion efficiency

Indian Space Agency Comes Up With an App Indicating Solar Power Potential

Ancala and Anesco deploy large scale battery at UK solar farm

Light can improve perovskite solar cell performance

BIO FUEL
West Virginia groundwater not affected by fracking, but surface water is

A first-ever for Poland in the way of U.S. natural gas

Merger paid off, energy services firm TechnipFMC says

Oil production in Texas up slightly year-on-year

BIO FUEL
Norwegian company envisions wind energy role for oil production

Oklahoma to end tax credits for wind energy

German power company examining new wind energy options.

Canada sees emerging role for wind energy

BIO FUEL
Bright future for self-charging batteries

A more than 100% quantum step toward producing hydrogen fuel

Electrochemical performance of lithium-ion capacitors

Stanford scientist's new approach may accelerate design of high-power batteries

BIO FUEL
Court deals setback to South Africa's nuclear ambitions

Andra continues Areva contract to operate its Aube Surface Disposal Facility

The critical importance of Predictive Power when building NPPs

AREVA NP Signs Contract for Outage Services at Farley Nuclear Generating Station

BIO FUEL
Free rides offered by Alphabet's Waymo autonomous cars

Uber sets 'flying car' launch for 2020

Rideshare rivals Gett, Juno join forces

Automakers see promise in China car-sharing

BIO FUEL
China-bound illegal donkey hide haul seized in Pakistan

A novel form of iron for fortification of foods

Rivers of blood orange: Juice floods Russian town

When Nature vents her wrath on grapes

BIO FUEL
MIT engineers manipulate water using only light

NIST method sees through concrete to detect early-stage corrosion

Berkeley Lab scientists discover new atomically layered, thin magnet

A plastic-eating caterpillar




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News






The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2017 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. All articles labeled "by Staff Writers" include reports supplied to Space Media Network by industry news wires, PR agencies, corporate press officers and the like. Such articles are individually curated and edited by Space Media Network staff on the basis of the report's information value to our industry and professional readership. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement